Dental Implants|Types, Benefits Risks
Dental implants, implantation is the most advanced, reliable and durable method for restoring lost teeth. If the implants and the teeth restored on them are properly and regularly looked after, they will last a lifetime. At the same time, it is a long-term investment in beautiful appearance and the ability to eat as if with your own teeth.
Only with dental implants can the entire tooth be restored from root to crown, since other methods, such as prosthetics, can only restore the crown of the tooth, i.e. the visible part of the tooth above the gum line. In addition, it is possible to restore teeth on implants when one, several or even all of the teeth are missing. About 97-98 percent of implantation procedures are successful.
Implants are the most effective method for restoring the dentition today. This is a titanium screw that is inserted into the jawbone and replaces the tooth's own root. Implants can restore both single defects (in this case, a crown is installed on the implant), and several missing teeth in a row at once (in this case, a bridge prosthesis is most often used, which is fixed on implants). A titanium structure made by a trusted manufacturer and installed by an experienced doctor will serve you for several decades. Some manufacturers are even willing to provide a lifetime warranty on their products.
* The rate of engraftment of a dental implant at the site of a long-extracted tooth is 98.05 percent, and a recently extracted tooth is 96.52 percent. (According to Degidi M, Nardi D, Piattelli A. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012 Dec; 14 (6): 828-38.)
What are dental implants made of?
The implant is a small metal screw that is inserted into the jawbone.
Dental implants are made of titanium. This metal is the most suitable for the human body: it does not cause allergic reactions, rejection, perfectly "fuses" with the jaw bone.
After a minimally invasive procedure, an artificial tooth is fixed to the implant, which does not differ in function or appearance from a natural tooth.
The dental implant was invented by Per Ingvar Branemark, who delivered the world's first implants to the Swede Gosta Larrson in 1965. He lived with these implants for over forty years - the rest of his life. At the time, the essence of dental innovation was the discovery that bone fuses with titanium. This process is known as osseointegration. Modern dental implants, of course, are much more improved than fifty years ago and perfectly replace lost teeth.
Implant installationImplantation is a surgical operation performed by a team of specialists. It takes place in several stages:
Diagnostics (analyzes, computed tomography).
A treatment plan in which the doctor chooses the optimal prosthetics method and makes a fitting.
Operation (from 30 minutes to several hours)
Installation of crowns.
The implant placement technique is divided into two types.
One-stage (immediate loading)
The process takes place under anesthesia for an hour. The doctor cuts the gum, prepares the place into which the implant with the healing cap is screwed in, and sutures. On the same day or a few days later, a temporary crown is placed on the artificial root. Permanent crowns are fixed in about 3-6 months.
Preservation of the shape of the gums
One operation is required.
Mainly for the front teeth
Certain parameters of the density, height and width of the gum tissue
In some cases, the fixation may weaken
Two-stage (delayed loading) The first stage consists in an operation to install an artificial root, and after 3-6 months the second stage begins. The bed is established in the gum with the help of a former, an impression is taken, and after 7-10 days, the periosteal part of the collapsible implant is installed - an abutment with a crown.
More reliable method
Suitable for restoring chewing and anterior teeth.
Low probability of rejection.
Between stages, a tooth without a crown (not aesthetically pleasing)
More visits to the dentist are required
In some cases, two operations are required.
The choice of the type of implantation remains with the doctor, because only he can tell in more detail how appropriate this or that method is in a particular clinical case. Implantation may also not be suitable for everyone, so go through a preliminary diagnosis and consultation with a dentist.
Benefits of dental implants
Teeth restored on implants are superior to bridges or removable dentures for many reasons.
Teeth for life
Teeth restored on implants are more durable than bridges. Correctly and regularly caring for new teeth on implants, as a rule, they serve a lifetime.
Positive health effects
Dental implants can restore not only the crown of the tooth, but also its root, so dental implants can reduce bone damage. Using this method of tooth restoration, adjacent healthy teeth remain intact. The situation is different with bridges. For example, when prosthetics with bridges, it is often necessary to grind adjacent teeth, which, in addition, receive additional stress, as they become abutment teeth.
Titanium, which is used for the production of implants, does not cause allergic reactions, rejection and perfectly fuses with the jawbone. A metal-free ceramic crown is fixed to the implant (titanium screw) - such a formed tooth replacement is ideal for chewing and helps to create impeccable oral hygiene.
Stable and comfortable teeth
Dental implants restore 100 percent chewing efficiency. A dental plate restores only about 30-40 percent of the chewing efficiency.
Non-removable teeth restored on implants are a fixed construction.
The All-on-4ﾂｮ treatment method (when all the teeth of the jaw are restored with only 4 implants) helps to avoid the discomfort that people often feel when wearing removable plates. Teeth restored on implants enable you to eat, talk and smile as if you have your own healthy teeth.
Teeth restored on implants are usually distinguished from natural ones only by specialists.
In the clinic, permanent teeth are made of zirconium. This material is highly regarded in modern dentistry for its durability and aesthetics. Zirconium is permeable to light, therefore it has the transparency inherent in natural teeth. Even under neon light, such artificial teeth glow like natural ones, so it is not easy to distinguish them.
Often, new teeth on implants return not only oral health, but also a youthful appearance and self-confidence, the ability to live a full life.
Dental implant manufacturers: which are the best?
First, it is worth considering three groups of dental implants - from luxury to budget.
The first group is elite. These include such manufacturers as the Swiss-American brand Nobel, Straumann, the South Korean brand Megagen, the Swedish-American Astgra Tech.
The second group is the middle class. This group includes the German-American brand Xive, Ankylos, Impro, Biohorizons, the Swiss brand Biomed and the South Korean brand Osstem.
The third group is the budget class. Mainly Israeli manufacturers - AlphaBio and MIS - have settled in this group. As well as South Korean dental implants from Dentium.
The difference in prices for dental implants
But why are some implants more expensive and some cheaper? In fact, according to the opinions of implantologists, there is a difference, and it lies in the following factors:
- The amount of impurities to the titanium alloy, which directly depends on the engraftment of the implant to the patient's biological tissues. Elite brands have the "purest" alloy, which can avoid many problems in the future.
- The surface of the implant is also an important fact. Indeed, in many patients, bone tissue loss is often observed, and reliable fixation of the implant in the bone is the most important factor during implantation. Elite brands have a cleaner surface, which makes it easy to move the implant to the bone tissue and at the same time securely fix it there.
- Service from the manufacturer. Undoubtedly, the clinic bears great responsibility for the patient. But when the implant has a serious manufacturing company behind its back, which provides proper service, this has a very positive effect on the "cooperation" between the patient and the implantologist. "Service" means warranty, bonuses and responsibility for the quality of the manufactured implant.
Types of dental implants
There are 4 types of implants in total:
In appearance they may resemble self-tapping screws, but their shape is similar to the shape of a living tooth. Often these implants are placed after a sinus lift (bone augmentation)
If the patient's bone tissue is severely depleted, the implant surgeon will have to resort to subperiosteal implants. They are distinguished by the fact that they occupy a significant area, which allows the prosthesis to be held securely. Also attached between the bone and the periosteum.
If the patient has at least the root of the teeth, then endodontic stabilized implants are used.
There are also intramucosal implants - this is the type of implant that is not installed in the bone. It is used to strengthen dentures.
Such a number of types of implants allows implant surgeons today to approach each patient as individually as possible, and find a way out of even the most difficult situations.
Survival of implants
Today, the high quality of implants (subject to cooperation with quality manufacturing companies) means the highest survival rate than ever - 98.5%!
But even if the implant did not take root, you have a guarantee, and you will simply be reinstalled. Therefore, you should not read scary stories about bad cases on the Internet - they happen extremely rarely, and there may be several reasons:
Poor quality of the used implant
Poor implant care
Systemic diseases of the patient (HIV infection, AIDS, hypertension, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus)
The most unexpected facts about implants
The discovery of osteintegration (fusion of titanium with bone) was discovered quite by accident - when one scientist studied the thigh of a rabbit with a camera, the body of which was made of titanium. When he was unable to extract it due to fusion with the bone, he made a new discovery.
Dental implants can last a lifetime (with proper care!). This is not a bridge that will have to be changed.
Implantation has practically no contraindications! A good implantologist will make implantation even in the most difficult case, he will simply take into account individual factors.
With implants, you can eat everything the same as with ordinary teeth.
The opinions of doctors about implantation are unambiguous - today we can fully live for the longest possible period of time.
Rehabilitation and rejection after the procedure
Rehabilitation and rejectionIn the first three days after surgery, an increase in edema may occur. 10 days after the operation, the initial state of the gum tissue is restored, the stitches are removed.
During the rehabilitation period, it is necessary to take good care of the crowns, as well as observe oral hygiene. It is necessary to clean artificial teeth as if they were a family, and also to monitor the occurrence of complications.
One of the serious complications is implant rejection (1% within a year after the procedure, 3% after 3 years and 5% after 10 years). Most often, problems with an implanted implant arise in connection with concomitant mucosal inflammation or systemic diseases.
Depending on the period and degree of rejection, the following symptoms are distinguished:
Mobility of the prosthesis
Sharp pain and bleeding on the gums at the implantation site
Swelling or purulent formations around the artificial roots.
The main reasons for rejection:
Getting an infection (due to a decrease in immunity, as well as the lack of a protective barrier after surgery)
Poor oral hygiene
Wrong choice of denture size or position
Neglect of implantation technology, aseptic and antiseptic measures
Refusal or inaccuracy of preliminary diagnostics of the whole organism
Lack of a preventive visit to the dentist.
Before starting the procedure, the doctor must clarify possible health problems, diagnose, find out possible restrictions and contraindications. Only then can you start the procedure.
Genetic diseases of mineral metabolism
Oncological diseases (the procedure can be planned 5 years after remission)
HIV and AIDS infection.
Neglect of the rules of oral hygiene
The period of changing dosages for hormonal treatment
Diabetes mellitus (only if the disease is not compensated).
Questions and answers
Is it painful to install implants?
Each patient is different, so the feeling before and after the procedure may differ. In dentistry, effective pain relievers are used, and the doctor will prescribe a course of medications that will ease pain, swelling, and also protect against infection.
The painfulness of the procedure depends on:
The volume of surgical work
The quality of anesthesia;
Compliance with the doctor's prescriptions during the rehabilitation period.
Is there a difference in fitting between the upper and lower jaw?
The lower jaw is wider, and the bone tissue is denser here. Thanks to this, the implant takes root faster. The jaw is mobile, permeated with blood vessels and nerves, which requires great care during the installation process.
The upper jaw is more porous, which is why bone grafting is often required to augment the atrophied bone. The maxillary sinuses are located next to the bone tissue of the upper jaw, which requires the doctor to be careful and careful in work.
At what age are implants placed?
Lost teeth can be restored at the end of puberty (after 18 years) and growth stops. As a rule, the doctor will conduct an examination and determine how developed the root system of the teeth is.
Can an MRI be done after implantation?
Modern implants are made of materials that do not magnetise, which means they are safe for tomography. Do not be afraid that the device will change the position of the implant or its shape. But before the procedure, it is necessary to tell the doctor about the presence of an implant, crown or prosthesis for the accuracy of the procedure.